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INTRODUCTION: ANONYMIZATION USING TOR Between February 20 and March 4, 2015, the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) administered and monitored a child pornography website in an effort to identify those who accessed the website’s illicit content. This website, “Playpen,” had more than 150,000 users worldwide. The FBI’s investigation was known as “Operation Pacifier.” […]

The Origins of Tor Security in online activity, and privacy from those who wish to monitor it, has been a priority for internet users since creation of the web. To achieve this goal, the concept of onion routing was developed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (“NRL”) in the mid-1990s to protect online communications […]